The plant has a fascicular root system and consists of two types of roots, the thinner and superficial are responsible for the uptake of water and nutrients, and the greater ones, whose function is to fix the bush to the ground. The blueberry roots have the characteristic of not having root hairs, root structures whose function is to increase the water absorption surface and nutrients. The branches arise from the crown (transition zone between roots and stems) are upright and can reach 2.5 m in height for most cultivars.
The blueberry cultivars - Vaccinium myrtillus - are a small shrub belonging to the Ericaceae family. They can reach 2 to 3 meters high and according to the variety and require between 500 to 1000 hours of annual cold during their dormant.
The flowers are grouped in clusters, they are white and have petals welded together, forming an inverted dome. Due to its characteristics, blueberry blossoms favor cross-pollination taking insect pollination (made by insects) great importance on the profitability of the crop.
Berry has a variable size and shade of blue, depending on the cultivar, covered with a waxy layer. When the maturation of the fruit, gives a decrease in the content of chlorophyll and anthocyanin content increases and sugars, causing the color to change from green to blue. Anthocyanins are natural pigments that have antioxidant properties and to which are attributed a number of health benefits, using the blueberry names such as "King of Antioxidants", "youth fruit", "fruit of health" or "fruit of longevity. Besides anthocyanins, blueberry has also vitamins and minerals such as vitamin A, B, C, and K, potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus and iron.